Please write Reponses to each . thank you.

1. The natural instinct that comes from the tendency to stereotype is to skip asking the right questions and immediately begin a thought process starting at the stereotype. The impulse to glaze over these questions and believe something without any evidence is a false sense of confidence in one’s knowledge that can lead to missing important information. Situations like claiming celebrities or politicians need to be “canceled” and condemned for their actions without hearing the whole story commonly leads to false ideas about someone. Hearing someone in pop culture committed a crime is so normalized now that some people have been falsely accused, but their reputation and livelihood suffered all the same.

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By using grey thinking and keeping your mind open to alternative conclusions as you evaluate arguments you can see the pros and cons of each argument, with the intention to better understand the argument and the people for and against the argument. This grey thinking defeats any either/or fallacies by asking questions that lead to many different conclusions instead of just a black or white answer.

I’ve chosen proposition 20 for my paper and it seems to be full of black and white policies. In my research, I’ve found more grey thinkers willing to consider multiple conclusions are against the proposition. The proposition is very either/or, and doesn’t recognize that many of the criminal cases it plans to penalize more harshly are going to have adverse effects on California’s communities. The proposition fails to share in arguments the damages that occur from not encouraging rehabilitation and parole incentives for inmates, leading them to recidivism and the problem worsening. This is easily the strongest argument against the proposition, as it is the most viable solution to the problem prop 20 suggests it would solve. If the proposition were focused on currently working rehab programs instead of dangerous mass incarceration and tough on crime laws it would actually have a chance at creating and sustaining safer communities.

2.For Chapter 11 (Significant Omissions):

I use these strategies to get into the habit of looking for missing information in my interlocutor’s argument. First, I have to remind myself that no matter how compelling the reasons for supporting a particular decision or opinion in the first place, I need to rediscover the missing information. I will ask questions to help decide what additional information you need, and then ask questions designed to reveal that information. I’ll pay particular attention to common counterarguments, missing definitions, missing value preferences or perspectives, and origins of “facts” referred to in the argument. But it is difficult to judge when missing or incomplete graphs, charts, tables, or data are encountered.

For Chapter 12 (Reasonable Conclusions):
In an if-clause, we state a condition that we are assuming to enable us to reach a particular conclusion. Generating if-clauses is especially helpful in determining reasonable conclusions for evaluative arguments, such as those evaluating the quality of music, art, colleges, or a president’s speech, because such arguments require taking a position on what criteria to use for making the evaluations. If-clauses present us with multiple conclusions that we should assess before making up our mind about the controversy, and they also broaden the list of possible conclusions from which we can choose our own position.

These two chapters tell about Significant Omissions and reasonable conclusions. This has a lot to do with the Proposition 18 I am currently studying and preparing to write. For example, the problem of identifying missing information allows me to avoid missing important information. And a reasonable conclusion knows how to summarize the conclusion. In the Proposition 18 I studied, I found that the arguments on both sides of the debate had omitted some statistical data. Among all the reasons I have identified that support the proposition I am studying, I will rank the reason “we need young people to speak out at the ballot box” first. So far, there is no another viable “solution” to the “problem” this proposition hopes to solve.

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