QUIZ 4 SHORT ANSWER 46 MULTI CHOICE ANSWER

Question 1 2 pts
Your text poses the question: Should a person wear a motorcycle helmet as required by law, when he is only putting himself at risk? Using a utilitarian analysis, explain your answer. Contrast your response with a formalistic analysis.

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Question 2 2 pts
Using a utilitarian analysis, compare the questions found in Chapter 4: “should you continue to buy cigarettes for a 79-year-old friend dying of lung disease?” with the question: “Should you accept a charitable donation from a businessman with ties to organized crime?” How are these similar or dissimilar in principle? Explain your answer.

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Question 3 2 pts
Consequentialism, was originated by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and can also be found in the writings of ________.
Group of answer choices

John Locke

Cesare Beccaria

John Milton

Aristotle

None of the above.

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Question 4 2 pts
Ethical conduct is enforced according to utilitarianism by individual hope of ________ or fear of ________.
Group of answer choices

favor; displeasure

promise; failure

truth; consequences

knowledge; ignorance

None of the above.

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Question 5 2 pts
Mill adds two conditions to the Golden Rule one of which is to place the happiness (the interest) of every individual in harmony with the interest of the whole.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 6 2 pts
Mill focuses on reconciling the ________ of the many with the happiness of the individual.
Group of answer choices

desire

happiness

misfortune

fortune

None of the above.

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Question 7 2 pts
Sometimes utilitarianism has been summarized in a shorthanded way, declaring that the end justifies the ________.
Group of answer choices

act

virtue

past

means

None of the above.

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Question 8 2 pts
The ________ is not important in utilitarianism; it is the outcome that matters.
Group of answer choices

duty

pleasure

thought

motivation

None of the above.

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Question 9 2 pts
The notion of utility, sometimes called ________, was originated by Jeremy Bentham.
Group of answer choices

consequentialism

non- consequentialism

formalism

hedonism

None of the above.

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Question 10 2 pts
As discussed the text, in contemporary society, a growing theme you hear is “don’t sweat the small stuff” and the claim that “it’s all small stuff.” This perspective on life encourages people not to take themselves or their actions seriously. Compare this modern view with the Virtue, Formalism, and Utilitarian ethical systems. Which ethical system could justify this modern view the most? Explain your answer.

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Question 11 2 pts
According to Gilligan’s Ethics of Care, there is a gender difference in how moral thinking develops. What is that difference?
Group of answer choices

Only females are capable of developing an ethics of care.

Women would never steal to save the life of Heinz’s wife.

Males make decisions in terms of care and responsibility; females make decisions in
terms of justice and rights.

Females make decisions in terms of care and responsibility; males make
decisions in terms of justice and rights.

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Question 12 2 pts
According to the classical approach to explaining criminal behavior, rehabilitation of the person is the best remedy for criminal misconduct.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 13 2 pts
According to this criminological theory, individuals commit crime because they are influenced by a series of internal and external factors, to include biological, sociological, and psychological factors.
Group of answer choices

Structural/Conflict

Positivism

Environmental

Ethical

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Question 14 2 pts
According to this view, crime occurs when a person fails to choose the proper course of action of conduct because of a failure to appreciate its wrongfulness, rather than a failure to appreciate the possibility of being caught.
Group of answer choices

Structural/Conflict

Sociological

Classical

Ethical

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Question 15 2 pts
Alabama prevents students from carrying electronic beepers and cell phones without written parental permission. Proponents argue that these devices are used by drug dealers, distract students, and disrupt the classroom. Which ethical theory do the proponents subscribe to?
Group of answer choices

Moral relativism

Ethical formalism

Utilitarianism

The Classical School of Thought

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Question 16 2 pts
Ethical thinkers, Kohlberg and Gilligan, emphasized this as a remedy to criminal behavior ________.
Group of answer choices

Education in ethical decision making at an early age

Stiffer sentences

More equitable distribution of wealth in society

Rehabilitation through psychological therapy

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Question 17 2 pts
Explanations of crime are grouped into four major types. Which of the following is not one of these types?
Group of answer choices

Ethical

Consensus

Structural/Conflict

Positivistic

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Question 18 2 pts
If an act is immoral, it is automatically illegal.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 19 2 pts
Kohlberg’s theory of moral development suggests that people progress through stages of moral reasoning; some reach the top while others do not.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 20 2 pts
New York City experienced a remarkable drop in the crime rate during the late 1990s because of aggressive police tactics against these sorts of offenses.
Group of answer choices

Weapons offenses

Quality of life

Car theft

Violent crimes

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Question 21 2 pts
On the nightly news, a criminologist argues, “It is no surprise that the prisons are filled largely with poor and powerless people, rather than the middle and upper class.” This is an example of the ________ explanation of crime.
Group of answer choices

Consensus

Ethical

Structural/Conflict

Psychological

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Question 22 2 pts
Some criminals in contemporary society use this phrase to justify more minor, self-serving acts of ethical misconduct.
Group of answer choices

“Don’t sweat the small stuff.”

“It is what it is.”

“You can’t always get what you want.”

“No harm, no foul.”

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Question 23 2 pts
The Jim Crow Laws, the WWII Japanese Internment laws, and the laws of Nazi Germany all illustrate which paradigm of how law arises in a society?
Group of answer choices

Immoral Tendencies

Broken Windows Theory

Ethical Formalism

Conflict View

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Question 24 2 pts
The conflict view holds that a behavior is criminalized only when it serves the interests of those in positions of power.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 25 2 pts
The positive school in criminology emphasizes “nurture;” the classical school emphasizes “nature.”
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 26 2 pts
Police training places great emphasis on learning legal rules and court mandates that continually change, while offering generally only a few hours of ethics training on principles for decision making that never change. Ethics offers a practical way to assess scenarios objectively in situations where legal rules have unclear application, offering consistent principles to guide police conduct that impact real goods, such as liberty and civil peace. Suggest some measures police trainers could take to enhance ethics training in both police academy settings as well as in-service training (training post academy).

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Question 27 2 pts
A frisk is a search for evidence; a search is a patting down of outer clothing.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 28 2 pts
A police officer felt a soft lumpy object in a suspects back pocket, about the size of a quarter. He was unsure what it was, so he manipulated it with his fingers. At this point he thought the object was a bag of marijuana, so he reached in and pulled it out. He was right. What was the result?
Group of answer choices

The officer did not have reasonable suspicion that the item was a weapon; bad
frisk.

The officer had reasonable suspicion that the item was evidence of a crime; good frisk.

The officer had reasonable suspicion that the item was a weapon; good frisk.

The officer was conducting a pat down for officer safety; good frisk.

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Question 29 2 pts
A police officer sees a car speeding dangerously down the highway and pulls it over. The driver hands the officer his license with a $50 bill clipped to it. The officer takes it and does not write a ticket. Taking the money is ________; not writing a ticket is ________.
Group of answer choices

Malfeasance; misfeasance

Nonfeasance; misfeasance

Malfeasance; nonfeasance

None of the above.

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Question 30 2 pts
A useful code of ethics should rely more on ________.
Group of answer choices

Statements of requirements

Mandatory rules of conduct

Statements of principles

Statements of law

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Question 31 2 pts
According to this explanation for police corruption, if a few “rotten apples” were eliminated, corruption would disappear.
Group of answer choices

External

Departmental

Managerial

Individual

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Question 32 2 pts
All of the following are considered forms of police corruption, except:
Group of answer choices

Malfeasance

Antifeasance

Misfeasance

Nonfeasance

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Question 33 2 pts
Codes of ethics are designed to promote thoughtful and professional conduct, not account for every possible situation a police officer might face.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 34 2 pts
In determining under what circumstances an individual should be stopped and frisked, which is the least helpful ethical system?
Group of answer choices

Formalism

Virtue Ethics

Utilitarianism

None of the above.

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Question 35 2 pts
Mary was pulled over for speeding. During this routine traffic stop, the officer asked her if she had been drinking. Mary said, “oh just two little cocktails at happy hour.” At no time before the questioning did the officer read her the Miranda warnings. According to case law, Mary’s statements can be used against her in her trial for drunk driving.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 36 2 pts
Most of the general public, as well as police administrators, believe that the Miranda warning requirement should be done away with.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 37 2 pts
Prosecutors are the gatekeepers of the criminal justice system.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 38 2 pts
The Fifth Amendment governs the police power to search and seize and individual.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 39 2 pts
The general direction of the U.S. Supreme Court decisions has given police great latitude to stray from the strict language of the original Miranda holding.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 40 2 pts
The most commonly accepted incidents of lying by police occur when officers lie in court to further buttress cases against guilty offenders.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 41 2 pts
The threat of terrorism appears to be much less specific than traditional threats to policing.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 42 2 pts
The use of a thermal imaging device is a search, and is therefore unlawful without a warrant.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 43 2 pts
These are the most fruitful strategies when corruption is the result of external, government factors ________.
Group of answer choices

Improve police supervision and political reform through legislation

Civilian review boards and promotions based on qualifications

Exhaustive background checks and periodic retraining of officers

All of the above.

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Question 44 2 pts
This details the requirements for arrests, warrants, searches, trials, lawyers, punishment, and other important aspects of criminal procedure.
Group of answer choices

The U.S. Congress

The Bill of Rights

The Patriot Act

The U.S. Supreme Court

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Question 45 2 pts
Under certain circumstances, both utilitarianism and virtue ethics might conclude that police lying is morally permissible.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 46 2 pts
Under certain circumstances, formalist thinkers just might favor Dirty Harry police tactics.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 47 2 pts
Under what circumstance(s) are police required to advise someone of their Miranda rights?
Group of answer choices

When the person is under arrest

When the person is under arrest and in custody

When the person is interrogated

When the person is in custody and being interrogated

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Question 48 2 pts
Unprovoked flight in a high crime area is reasonable suspicion to stop an individual.
Group of answer choices

True

False

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Question 49 2 pts
Why is ethics important to the police officer in the street?
Group of answer choices

Everyone is born with ethics, so all police officers have them.

Ethics is easier to learn than case law.

All laws are ethical, so learning ethics will ensure compliance with laws.

Ethics offer an objective standard to address situations not yet addressed by the courts.

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Question 50 2 pts
Which case established the legal authority and limits for a stop and frisk?
Group of answer choices

Marbury v. Madison

Miranda v. Arizona

Terry v. Ohio

The Fourth Amendment

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