Personality Psychology

I’ve attached the textbook that will have the answers to these questions. The instructions below are attached as screenshots in the file section.
Please separate answers by section. There are only 2 sections.
These do not have to be long drawn out answers you can be concise but make sure to answer all questions asked.
Section 1

Define and contrast the emic and etic approaches to studying personality cross culturally. As part of your answer, describe the basic research design that proponents of each approach have used to investigate the universality versus cultural specificity of trait structure. In other words, how have emic and etic researchers investigated the generalizability of trait structure across multiple cultures? (6 points)
The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) are important biological systems that regulate people’s experience and are strongly related to both mood and personality. Briefly describe the basic adaptive functions of each system. (4 points) Then, name the major personality trait that is most strongly associated with each system (2 points) (6 points overall)
Describe two problems or challenges in conducting cross-cultural research that were discussed either in class or in Chapter 13 of your textbook. (4 points)
Gordon Allport believed that there was a fundamental discontinuity between normal and abnormal behavior. Because of this, Allport argued that personality psychology needed to move away from the psychoanalytic focus on neurotic individuals. In lecture, Dr. Watson argued that we now know that Allport was wrong, in that the data have established important continuities between normal and abnormal behavior. Briefly summarize evidence indicating that Allport was wrong and that there is continuity between normal and abnormal behavior. (6 points).

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Briefly describe the concepts of the I (ontological self) and the me (epistemological self) from William James’ theory of The Self, which is described in Chapter 15 of the textbook; as part of your answer, be sure to clarify how these concepts differ from one another. (4 points)

What two Big Five traits show particularly impressive generalizability across both (a) cultures and (b) species? Cite specific evidence to support your answer. (6 points)

Define the concept of sociosexuality. Then, describe how individual differences in sociosexuality are related to the Big Five personality traits. (6 points)

In Chapter 17 of the textbook, Funder talks about the “Bad Five” personality traits that recently were included in the Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD) in Section III of DSM-5. Name and describe these five “bad” personality traits. As part of your answer, provide two examples of facets subsumed within each “bad” personality trait. (10 points) Finally, as was discussed in lecture, describe how AMPD antisocial personality disorder can be diagnosed using specific Bad Five facet traits. (4 points). (14 points total)

Section 2


1. Naragon-Gainey and Watson (2014) identified 3 or 4 “consensual” facets—that is, specific traits that are included in several different instruments—for each of the Big Five domains by factor analyzing scale scores from 6 different personality inventories. Read each item below and then identify the target domain and consensual facet that is being measured by each one. Please note all items are written so that they reflect high levels of the target trait (i.e., they would be endorsed by a high scorer on that trait). (1 point for each correct answer) (10 points overall)

A. I consider the consequences of my actions before I do anything. B. I have a quick temper.
C. I always try to help people in need.
D. I usually take charge in a group of people.

E. I work hard to achieve my goals.
F. I enjoy learning for learning’s sake.
G. I feel worthless at times.
H. I’m not one to boast or brag.
I. I am tolerant of alternative points of view.
J. I have more energy than most people I know.



NOTE: In order to get partial credit for the questions in this section, be sure to show the calculations you used to derive your answers.

2. Dr. P. conducts a large-scale adoption study examining individual differences in shyness. She obtains a correlation of .15 between biological mothers and their children (i.e., these are first- degree biological relatives who share 50% of their genes) and a correlation of .03 between adoptive mothers and their children (i.e., these results are based on non-biological relatives). Note that in every case, mothers and children lived together in the same household. Based on these correlations, estimate the percentage of variance in shyness that is due to (a) heredity and (b) the shared familial environment. (4 points)

3. I collect data on the trait of neatness from a large sample of twins reared together. I obtain a correlation of .55 for the monozygotic (MZ) twins, and a correlation of .30 for the dizygotic (DZ) twins. Using the traditional Falconer formulas that were presented in class and in the textbook, estimate the percentage of variance in neatness due to (a) heredity and (b) the shared familial environment. (4 points)

4. I conduct a study examining the correlations among four specific component traits of extraversion: assertiveness (i.e., preferring to be a leader rather than a follower), exhibitionism (i.e., enjoying being the center of attention), sociability (i.e., liking to spend time with others), and excitement seeking (i.e., seeking out intense, exciting experiences). Here are the correlations among scores on these four traits:


Score 1234 ________________________________________________________________________

1. Assertiveness .—

2. Exhibitionism 3. Sociability

.33 .—
.44 .48 .—
.22 .24 .32 .—

4. Excitement Seeking ________________________________________________________________________

I conduct a factor analysis and extract a single factor that represents the general trait of extraversion. Which scales would have the (a) highest and (b) lowest loadings on this factor? Be sure to cite specific evidence to justify your answer. (4 points)



5. Define the concept of rank-order stability and describe how it is measured in personality research (please be as clear as possible). (2 points) Then, summarize two basic conclusions that can be drawn from the very extensive research literature on the rank-order stability of personality. (4 points) (6 points overall)

6. In class, we discussed various theoretical models of mate preferences; several of these models have received substantial empirical support in this literature. Begin by (a) describing two variables on which we see clear sex differences in mate preferences between men and women (be sure to specify how women and men differ on these two variables). Then, (b) describe two variables on which we see clear evidence of consensual mate preferences (i.e., variables that are highly desired by both men and women). Finally, describe two variables on which people clearly desire similarity in their potential mates. (6 points)

7. Many popular dating sites promote the idea that couples that are more similar in personality are “compatible” and, therefore, will have a better relationship. Is this true? Explain your answer. (6 points)

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