ICT Economics

General Instructions:

Your paper should set out clearly the approach to the topic you will take and then develop your approach convincingly. Factors that will affect grading: format, quality of writing, clarity and effectiveness of presentation.

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Be aware that electronic tools may be used on your paper to detect plagiarism from online sources and/or previously submitted papers.

A properly structured paper has (this is a generic list; see, in addition, specifics for your paper in section 2.3):

· A cover page with title and author information only,

· An abstract summarizing in 200 words or fewer the theme of the paper, e.g., the point you are making in response to a particular question or topic,

· Several major sections. The first is an introduction explaining the problem area, question or topic the paper addresses, and possibly describing how the paper will present the author’s view. The last is a conclusion summarizing the author’s overall view, how it was argued, and (depending on the nature of the paper) a brief look at future work extending that presented in the paper. There may be any number of major sections between the Introduction and Conclusion. Each major section may contain subsections. It is usual to number major sections with integers (1, 2, 3, etc.) and subsections as ‘fractions’ within a major section (1.1, 1.2, etc.).

· A consistent appearance. Use only one serif font and style for the main text, (e.g., Times Roman, the default choice of almost every typesetting software application that works in English, and not Helvetica or Arial [these are sans-serif fonts]).1 Section headings and titles may be in a different font, though do not have to be. Font size should not be greater than 12 nor less than 10 for the main text. Every page (except cover page) must be numbered and may have a header and/or footer.

· Figures and tables that are individually identified, usually by number. Each figure and table, in addition to a number, has a title and a brief caption describing, usually in only two or three lines, what the figure or table shows. No figure or table should appear in a paper unless it is referred to in the text.

· References: you will need, at some point, to cite work done by others to substantiate or clarify points you are, yourself, making. The citation (where you identify in your main text that a quote or report of a result is from someone else’s work) should appear either purely as a number, usually in square brackets [ ]. The reference, appearing in a separate section at the end of the paper, provides the title, author, publisher, date, and page number(s) you referenced.

Almost every document formatting application program you might use (e.g., Microsoft Word or OpenOffice) has features you can use to automatically track figure and table numbers, as well as your references. You should, if you are not already, become familiar with using these: they will make your life much easier here, and for future documents you will write.

If you’re unsure of some of these aspects of building a paper, have a look at any journal, to see how their papers are laid out. You may also find it helpful (entertaining, at least) to go to the journal’s web site and look for ‘‘instructions for authors’’ where they will describe the rules to follow when submitting a paper.

Paper Topic:

Use the following topic for your paper. If you have some other particular topic you really would like to write about, then send me and your TA an email or ask me in person, so I can approve your choice.

Suggested Topic: ICT has not been widely deployed across much of the developing world but is beginning to be. Providing primary education to the world’s children is a priority for the United Nations: not only entrenched in Millennium Development Goal 2 (MDG2) the Secretary General launched the initiative ‘‘Education First’’ to stimulate work toward accomplishing MDG2. The un-fulfilled MDG2 goal lives on now as SDG4 (Sustainability Development Goal) Currently, about 67 million children have no access to primary education. And, in much of the developing world, there is widespread disparity in access to education for boys and for girls. Many look to ICT as a way to mitigate, if not solve, this gap.

Deploying ICT-supported education is a challenge in much of the developing world since much of this region has no network, and no electricity. Yet, ICT is being successfully used despite these obstacles. For your paper on this topic, describe how innovative use of ICT is playing a role in educating children (and adults) in the developing world.

One example of some of the ‘‘innovations’’ used so as to make ICT a viable path to delivery of education is teaching basic healthcare in villages in Guinea:

· http://www.cbc.ca/informationmorningsaintjohn/2013/09/05/grand-manan-teacher-in-guinea [this effort pre-dates the ebola outbreak by about 18 months; Robbie has not been able to return to Guinea to collect his final results, the clinic he was based in was closed, and people he knew there fell victim to the ebola outbreak]).

Another is teaching basic reading literacy in Ethiopia, notably without much or any teacher intervention.

Your paper needs to look at one or two current (i.e., running now or in the last three years) projects (if two, they must be in different countries) that make ICT available to a community or region, how obstacles are overcome, and what effects this effort has had on the community the project serves.

You cannot use the example, above, as the subject of your paper unless you describe a second, different, project as well.

For each project you address, your paper must identify the project, what its goal is (e.g., teaching basic literacy, STEM, adults in life-long learning, girls and women,…), how the project is structured (e.g., who staffs it, who runs it, how is it paid for, what country/countries/NGOs are involved, …), when it started and when it ends (if it isn’t open ended). How successful is the project (and how is that being measured)? is it growing/expanding?

Some other sources of information for this topic include:

· The CIA World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook

· UNESCO’s Education site: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education

· IndexMundi: http://www.indexmundi.com

What You Submit

For the indicated due date (see Blackboard) you need to provide an electronic version in pdf format. If you also elect to hand in a printed version, it should be printed one-sided only (back of each sheet is blank), and may be in color or black and white, depending on whether you depend on color in any figures. (Generally you should not depend on color for figures, because most places that might publish your paper will do so in black and white: not everything that is apparent in color will be apparent in black and white…plan for your figures to work in black and white).

Evaluation of Papers

The dominant factor affecting your grade will be how clearly you express the idea you are trying to communicate. The idea itself needs to have some merit: writing a paper arguing forcefully that the daytime cloudless sky is blue in color is not particularly exciting, even if it is well expressed.

The quality of writing is a significant factor in grading your paper: write in complete sentences and in your own words. Cite references as needed, being clear about when you are using results of someone else, or their actual words (as when you quote from another author’s work). Quotations from other work should appear ‘in-line’ with your text, in quotation marks, ending with the citation unless the quote is more than three lines long. Longer quotes, should be indented (both margins), singlespaced, has no quotation marks, and end with the citation.

The appearance of the actual reference appearing in your references section, depends on the source. For a book you need to provide the title, author, publisher, date and place of publication, and the page(s) you refer to. For a magazine or journal article, you provide everything you do for a book and, additionally, the volume and number of the particular journal. For a reference you find on the web, you may cite the URL as the reference, but you should cite a more permanent reference to the material if there is one. For example, if you use an article from, e.g., Scientific American, or The Economist, and you found the article on a website, you should cite the actual magazine and not the URL. If you must use a URL as your reference, always give the date you accessed the web source. Take care when printing URLs in your paper (anywhere, references or text), that you do not introduce artificial hyphens at line breaks into the URL. Your paper must cite at least three distinct references.

As for format and layout, your paper should meet the criteria mentioned at the start of this section, and: have ½ inch margins at top and bottom, 1 inch margins on left and right, be at least 1½ lines inter-line space, but not more than double-spaced. Every page except the cover page must have a page number, and the first page where the main text starts is numbered as page 1. The abstract may appear on page 1, or on a page before that.

Papers that do not conform to the format and layout requirements described here and at the start of section 2 will be penalized. Length of the paper is up to you, but it is hard to imagine a reasonable examination of the topic taking less than four pages (not counting abstract, cover, references or quotes). You should avoid too long a paper, so an upper bound should be 10 pages (similarly counted). An ‘A’ paper will include references of different kinds: from books, journals, as well as web articles.

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