Make one paragraph, answering the question below. Include citations in APA format and no plagiarism. Must be at least a paragraph in length. It must also be free of spelling and grammatical errors. A paragraph format must be used.
Discuss one disorder associated with the respiratory system that is presented in the powerpoints. Use Emphysema
Also, make a one-paragraph response to this paragraph below. Please use citations and check the spelling and the grammar plus no plagiarism.
Lung diseases can be either obstructive or restrictive. Obstructive indicates that there is difficulty exhaling whether it be due to a blockage or narrowing of the airway. On the other hand, a restrictive disorder indicates difficulty with pulmonary compliance, or the ability to expand the lungs fully.
Back in 2004 I worked in the pulmonary function lab at Brigham and Women’s hospital in Boston, and we performed pulmonary function testing on patients with a variety of symptoms. Some of the sicker patients that we would see, would be those diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis. This is a restrictive condition that is caused by the scarring and thickening of the lung tissue between the alveoli making it more difficult for oxygen to pass into the bloodstream, resulting in progressive shortness of breath (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2020). One of the most common reasons that we would see these patients is because they had previously been exposed to asbestos or they had received prior chemotherapy or radiation. Due to the prolonged exposure of asbestos and/or the chemotherapy or radiation, the lungs have been scarred, resulting in this restricted air flow.
I have attached a photo below that depicts the difference between normal gas exchange compared to the exchange in someone who has pulmonary fibrosis. As you can see, the alveolus wall is much thicker in the lungs afflicted with pulmonary fibrosis, thus restricting the amount of oxygen that can enter the bloodstream as previously mentioned.
When performing pulmonary function tests on patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we would see a significant decrease in total lung capacity (TLC). In fact, in a study done in 2014, it was found that on diagnosis, 73% of patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis had a restrictive pattern with an average TLC of 72% of predicted (Cortes-Telles et. al, 2014). This indicates that their TLC is approximately restricted by 20-28% of normal TLC.
Cortes-Telles, A., Forkert, L., O’Donnell, D. E., & Moran-Mendoza, O. (2014). Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: new insights on functional characteristics at diagnosis. Canadian respiratory journal, 21(3), e55–e60. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/825606
Mayo Clinic (1998-2020). Pulmonary fibrosis. Retrieved online on November 6, 2020 from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pulmonary-fibrosis/symptoms-causes/syc-20353690
Pulmonary Function Foundation (2019). Pulmonary Fibrosis Overview. Retrieved online on November 6, 2020 from https://www.pulmonaryfibrosis.org/life-with-pf/about-pf
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